Sun is the most important planet in Indian astrology. It is the source of light for us and hence governs the most important aspects – self, health, father, the things that affect us the most.
General properties and behaviour
In a horoscope, a strong sun represents confidence, pride and self esteem in the chart. It can go to extent of arrogance. On the other hand a weak sun will signify loss of confidence. Sun is not emotional and will not contribute to emotional happiness. Achievements, pride, glory, fame are important to Sun. Actions governed by Sun in its areas of influence will be deliberate, well thought out and never impulsive.
Properties of strong Sun
With a strong Sun in a janma kundali, the body gets a healthy constitution. It signifies ego, confidence and enthusiasm. The person (or the attribute in the chart that sun affects) would be clean at heart. As it was earlier mentioned, there would be deliberate and thoughtful actions.
Properties of a malefic Sun
With a malefic Sun, there is arrogance, too much pride, a dominating personality, absolute lack of emotion and deception. The person would be prone to keeping grudges. These traits can be predicted if Sun is malefic in a chart.
Properties of a weak Sun
A weak Sun in the kundali is responsible for lack of confidence and in most places, letting others dominate the situation. The person would hate to be in charge. On the other hand, such folks generally lack ego, are perceptive and open to ideas. They show lack of ego. A weak sun would be responsible for heart disease, weak bones in the body.
Father, ones superior in organization, employer, king and authority are signified by Sun in Vedic Astrology. Sun is the leader (rather than a coach) who motivates and inspires to do better. Coach is for Jupiter. Jupiter will teach, point out mistakes and give a chance to rectify. Sun will not do anything like that. Sun’s job is to provide light and provide direction.
Exaltation, Debilitation and Moolatrikona
Sun is exalted in Aries, the sign of Mars. The highest exaltation point of Sun is 10° of Aries. It quite happy in the sign of Mars, its fellow fiery planet, who resembles Sun and is as aggressive like it in some sense. Sun is a leader, is quite businesslike and detests the partying Venus and the luxuries and what not. It is therefore quite frustrated in the sign of Venus, which is Libra. It is interesting to note that Sun is not comfortable in this sign, which is for justice, balance and importantly in stronger manifestations – Libra is quite a political sign. This means that Sun, the leader, is not a politician. Sun has the radiance and others become followers automatically. No one has to be coaxed into following Sun.
Sun in Libra with neechabhanga will give quite a bit of ego and self confidence and taking some of the properties of Libra. Sun’s moolatrikona sign is Leo 4° to 20°.
Sun is friends with Moon, Mars and Jupiter. Mercury is considered a neutral planet. Venus and Saturn are natural enemies.
Heart, bones, eyes are signified by Sun in a horoscope.
Matter & Direction
Sun governs wood and copper. As per Brihat Samhita, Sun rules over items dealing with fire, poisonous things and chemicals. It is responsible for power industry. Since Sun represents the government of the day, it denotes public sector companies. It is responsible for commodities like wheat, pearl millet (bajra) and sorghum (jowar), etc. It rules over east direction .
Astrological Remedial Measures
Sun governs wheat. To reduce the effects of a malefic Sun and to strengthen a weak Sun, wheat should be donated. Consumption of wheat is also required.
Sun rules over position of leadership, is a politician and public face of an organization. Sun is a doctor that helps heal people.
Karaka & commonality with various houses
These are the attributes that Sun governs in a jamna kundali. I have also mentioned the houses in the horoscope that govern the same attribute such that it is logical and helps in chart interpretation.