In Sanskrit, badha (बाधा) means obstruction. Look at the thesaurus and the other synonyms are – impediment, handicap, hindrance, holdback etc. A Baadhak planet creates a hindrance to the good results shown for a sign and the house in which the sign falls. There is a concept of of baadhaksthana, the house that causes the hindrance and badhaka, the lord of the baadhak-sthana, which is the planet that causes the hindrance.
The concept is explained in Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, where badhakasthana is defined as – 11th house in a horoscope for movable signs, 9th house for fixed signs and 7th house for dual natured signs. The signs are considered as occupying the house based on the ascendant. E.g. if Ascendant in a kundali is Aries, then ascendant is called “movable” and so on.
For the 12 rashi, the badhaka-sthanas are as follows:
|Rashi||Type||Baadhaka House||Baadhaka Rashi||Badhakesh|
|Aries (मेष)||Movable||11th||Aquarius (कुम्भ)||Saturn|
|Taurus (वृषभ)||Fixed||9th||Capricorn (मकर)||Saturn|
|Gemini (मिथुन)||Dual Natured||7th||Sagittarius (धनु)||Jupiter|
|Cancer (कर्क)||Movable||11th||Taurus (वृषभ)||Venus|
|Leo (सिंह)||Fixed||9th||Aries (मेष)||Mars|
|Virgo (कन्या)||Dual Natured||7th||Pisces (मीन)||Jupiter|
|Libra (तुला)||Movable||11th||Leo (सिंह)||Sun|
|Scorpio (वृश्चिक)||Fixed||9th||Cancer (कर्क)||Moon|
|Sagittarius (धनु)||Dual Natured||7th||Gemini (मिथुन)||Mercury|
|Capricorn (मकर)||Movable||11th||Scorpio (वृश्चिक)||Mars|
|Aquarius (कुम्भ)||Fixed||9th||Libra (तुला)||Venus|
|Pisces (मीन)||Dual Natured||7th||Virgo||Mercury|
Badhakesh is supposed to be the one who denotes obstacles and hindrances and therefore needs to be treated like a functional malefic. The results will show up during the dasha/bhukti of the badhakesh. Similarly, planets placed in the badhak houses will show malefic results.
There are two interesting pairs here – Jupiter and Mercury. Ascendants Gemini & Virgo and Sagittarius & Pisces. Both being dual natured have their badhak-sthanas as 7th house. This is a kendra and the lord of Kendra will automatically be tagged as having kendradhipati dosha also. Thus the corresponding planet – Jupiter or Mercury carries additional blemish of being badhaka as well as Kendradhipati dosha. Interestingly, kendradhipati dosha is corrected and relief obtained if the planet is placed in Trine. However, the planet acting like a badhaka will indeed harm the trine house. This becomes too complicated for a budding astrologer to comprehend. Therefore, we should use these rules